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        Medical Degree Program in China - Nephrology

         1. Introduction

        Nephrology studies kidney. The kidney is an important organ of the human body, its basic function is to produce urine to eliminate metabolites in vivo and some of the waste and poison, also retains water and other useful substances through reabsorption function, such as glucose, protein, amino acid, sodium ion, potassium ion, sodium bicarbonate and so on, to regulate the balance of water and electrolyte and maintain acid-base balance. The kidney also has endocrine function, the producing renin, erythropoietin, active vitamin D3, prostaglandin and kinin and so on, but also the degradation site for the body endocrine hormone and target organ of renal hormone. These functions of the kidney ensure the stability of the body internal environment, so that the metabolism can be carried out normally.
         
        2. Structure
         
        Each kidney is composed of over 1 million rental units. The rental unit is the basic unit of the structure and function of the kidney. Each rental unit consists of three parts: renal glomerulus, renal capsule and renal tubular, renal glomerular and renal capsule form renal corpuscle. The internal structure of the kidney can be divided into two parts, the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis.
         
        3. Function Test
         
        (1). Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 
        (2). Creatinine (CR)
        (3). Uric Acid (Ua)
         
        4. Function
         
        (1). Excrete metabolites in vivo and harmful substances into the body
        (2). Maintain water balance through the formation of urine
        (3). Maintain electrolyte and acid-base balance in the body
        (4). Regulate blood pressure
        (5). Promote the formation of red blood cells
        (6). Promote the activation of vitamin D
         
        5. Early Signs
         
        Edema
        Hypertension
        Lumbago
        Too much or too little urine
        Abnormal urine test
        Urinary tract infection
        Weak
        Diabetes
        Do not want to eat
        Anemia
        There is a bubble in the urine
        Gout, hyperuricemia
        The urine protein and urine occult blood
         
        6. Chronic Renal Failure
         
        Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is a clinical syndrome caused by kidney damage resulting from a variety of reasons and deterioration, resulting in renal units severely damaged, so that the body is in disorder in the excretion of metabolic and regulation of water, electrolyte and acid-base balance.
         
        7. Uremia
         
        Renal Replacement Therapy
        Conventional renal replacement therapy: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation.
        Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are the most commonly used renal replacement therapy, renal transplantation is the most complete renal replacement therapy.
        Diseases Causing Uremia
        (1). Chronic glomerulonephritis
        (2). Renal tubular interstitial nephritis
        (3). Hypertension
        (4). Secondary to systemic disease
        (5). Metabolic disease
        (6). Chronic urinary tract obstruction
        (7). Congenital disease
         
        8. Common Diseases
         
        Chronic glomerulonephritis
        Nephrotic syndrome
        Chronic renal failure
        Renal calculus
        Renal cysts (polycystic kidney)
        Diabetic nephropathy
        Hypertensive nephropathy
        Anaphylatic purpura nephritis
        Lupus nephritis
        Pediatric renal disease
        NOTICE

        2020 Admission is opening !
        Full Scholarship is available for Medical Master, Phd,
        Bachelor of Pharmacy, Medicine

        Read more......

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